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Molecular Products and Particulate Characterization of Emissions from High Temperature Cooking of Goat Meat


Nicholas Rono, Joshua Kibet, Francis I. Okanga, Samuel C. Limo

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Keywords

Molecular toxins, scanning electron microscopy, pyrolysis, particulate matter

Abstract

Efforts to understand the formation characteristics of molecular toxins and particulate matter from various combustion systems, has gained intense attention in the recent past. Accordingly, this work investigates the evolution of organic toxins and particulate matter from a goat meat sample at various pyrolysis temperatures. To simulate cooking conditions, 10 mg of meat sample was heated under atmospheric conditions in an air depleted environment in a thermal degradation reactor and the smoke effluent passed through a transfer column and collected over 10.0 mL dichloromethane for GC-MS analysis. The major selected toxins reported in this study include indole, 2-(1-methyl) quinoline, phenol, 2-ethylthiophenol, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone, and 1,1’-biphenyl. At the highest pyrolysis temperature (700 ̊C), the mean particle size of particulate emissions was estimated to be 7.72 ± 0.61 μm while at 500 ̊C, the particle size of emissions was found to be 3.52 ± 0.31 μm. The decomposition profile of meat was monitored between 300 and 525 ̊C, and the highest mass loss was recorded between 300 and 450 ̊C (~ 36%). Most of the organic toxins from high temperature cooking of goat meat were mainly phenolics whereas the particulate emissions at 500 ̊C and 700 ̊Cwere approximately PM2.5 and PM10 respectively.