Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) and the Health Risk Impact of Some Dairy Products Marketed in Nigeria
S.U. Nwoke, N.R. Ekere, H.O. Abugu*, J.N. Ihedioha, C.C. Ezike, P.U. Odum, S.I. Eze
Potential Toxic Elements, Yoghurt, Dairy Product, Health Risk, Milk
Dairy products (Yoghurts, Butter and Cheese) available in Nigerian markets were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Sn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used to determine the metals after digestion and their potential health risks assessed. The result showed the following mean detectable concentration range (mg/kg) of the potential toxic elements (PTEs) in yoghurt: Cd = 0.0197 - 0.0630, Cu = 0.0647 - 0.0323, Ni = 0.3077 - 0.2051, Mn = 0.0540 - 0.0432, Zn = 0.9351 - 0.1125, Fe = 0.7336 - 0.4076. Butter: Cd = 0.12 - 0.0050, Ni = 0.7179 - 0.5128, Mn = 0.0540 - 0.0324, Zn = 0.9374 - 0.3668 and Cheese: Cd = 0.0297 - 0.0225, Ni = 0.8547 - 0.2051, Mn = 0.0972 - 0.0540, Zn = 1.2294 - 0.2136, Fe = 0.8559 - 0.4075 and Sn = 0.0057 - 0.0047. The health risk assessment showed health risk index of Cd and Ni to be above one indicating probable health risk associated with the consumption of most of the dairy products. Though the health risk associated with the intake of Cu, Mn, Sn, Fe and Zn through the consumption of these dairy products did not show probable risk, their concentrations should be monitored. Their accumulation in the human body as a result of continual consumption might pose health challenge to the consumers. Therefore, routine evaluation of these PTEs should be sustained to ensure their concentration does not exceed the safe limits.